器→工具, 开源项目

开源地理数据OpenStreetMap的使用

钱魏Way · · 1,370 次浏览

OpenStreetMap数据简介

OpenStreetMap,简称OSM,是一个开源的世界地图,可依据开放许可协议自由使用,并且可以由人们自由的进行编辑,随着开源意识的普及,以及电子地图应用的普及,osm数据的质量和体量不断增加,在一些领域的精确度已经不逊于Google地图,甚至在一些方面可以说是超越了google地图的。

OSM数据特点:

  • 免费开放,用户可以对原始数据编辑
  • 轨迹数据来自全世界用户的采集(质量参差不齐)
  • 按照数据的类别,用不同的标签标示数据类别
  • 没有JavascriptApi,提供数据下载,数据格式.osm
  • 缩放级别[2,18],坐标系:WGS84

警告:OpenStreetMap同GADM一样提供的中国国界数据不符合中国的领土主张,切勿在公开使用。在中国大陆地区参与OpenStreetMap绘制很可能是非法行为。请参阅法律警示页面:WikiProject_China

数据下载地址:http://download.geofabrik.de/

OSM提供的数据格式:

  • .osm.pbf:PBF文件是OpenStreetMap数据的二进制紧凑格式,特点就是相同的数据量占用存储空间小。相比bz2 等格式,pbf读写效率更高。
  • .shp.zip:ESRI Shapefile(shp),如何使用见搭建自己的反地理查询系统
  • .osm.bz2:XML格式的压缩

除了可以下载全部数据外,OSM还可以按照国家等进行下载。

OpenStreetMap的使用

想要将OSM数据导入到PostgreSQL,可以使用的工具为osm2pgsql。具体怎么使用网上有很多的教程。这里使用的是Windows版本:https://lonvia.dev.openstreetmap.org/osm2pgsql-winbuild/releases/

使用方法:

PS D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin> .\osm2pgsql.exe -h
osm2pgsql version 1.2.1 (64 bit id space)

Usage:
        D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin\osm2pgsql.exe [options] planet.osm
        D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin\osm2pgsql.exe [options] planet.osm.{pbf,gz,bz2}
        D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin\osm2pgsql.exe [options] file1.osm file2.osm file3.osm

This will import the data from the OSM file(s) into a PostgreSQL database
suitable for use by the Mapnik renderer.

    Common options:
       -a|--append      Add the OSM file into the database without removing
                        existing data.
       -c|--create      Remove existing data from the database. This is the
                        default if --append is not specified.
       -l|--latlong     Store data in degrees of latitude & longitude.
       -m|--merc        Store data in proper spherical mercator (default).
       -E|--proj num    Use projection EPSG:num.
       -s|--slim        Store temporary data in the database. This greatly
                        reduces the RAM usage but is much slower. This switch is
                        required if you want to update with --append later.
       -S|--style       Location of the style file. Defaults to
                        default.style.
       -C|--cache       Use up to this many MB for caching nodes (default: 800)
       -F|--flat-nodes  Specifies the flat file to use to persistently store node
                        information in slim mode instead of in PostgreSQL.
                        This file is a single > 40Gb large file. Only recommended
                        for full planet imports. Default is disabled.

    Database options:
       -d|--database    The name of the PostgreSQL database to connect to.
       -U|--username    PostgreSQL user name (specify passsword in PGPASSWORD
                        environment variable or use -W).
       -W|--password    Force password prompt.
       -H|--host        Database server host name or socket location.
       -P|--port        Database server port.

A typical command to import a full planet is
    D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin\osm2pgsql.exe -c -d gis --slim -C <cache size> -k \
      --flat-nodes <flat nodes> planet-latest.osm.pbf
where
    <cache size> should be equivalent to the size of the
      pbf file to be imported if there is enough RAM
      or about 75% of memory in MB on machines with less
    <flat nodes> is a location where a 50+GB file can be saved.

A typical command to update a database imported with the above command is
    osmosis --rri workingDirectory=<osmosis dir> --simc --wxc - \
      | D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin\osm2pgsql.exe -a -d gis --slim -k --flat-nodes <flat nodes> -r xml -
where
    <flat nodes> is the same location as above.
    <osmosis dir> is the location osmosis replication was initialized to.

Run D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin\osm2pgsql.exe --help --verbose (-h -v) for a full list of options.
PS D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin>

这里我们选择中国数据做演示:

PS D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin> .\osm2pgsql.exe -U postgres -W -d osm -P 5432 -C 16000 -S .\default.style -H localhost D:\china-latest.osm.pbf
osm2pgsql version 1.2.1 (64 bit id space)

Password:
Allocating memory for sparse node cache
Node-cache: cache=16000MB, maxblocks=256000*65536, allocation method=1
Using built-in tag processing pipeline
Using projection SRS 3857 (Spherical Mercator)
Setting up table: planet_osm_point
Setting up table: planet_osm_line
Setting up table: planet_osm_polygon
Setting up table: planet_osm_roads

Reading in file: D:\china-latest.osm.pbf
Using PBF parser.
Processing: Node(80470k 5747.9k/s) Way(2689k 54.88k/s) Relation(0 0.00/s)
PS D:\Program Files\osm2pgsql-bin> .\osm2pgsql.exe -U postgres -W -d osm -P 5432 -C 16000 -S .\default.style -H localhost D:\china-latest.osm.pbf
osm2pgsql version 1.2.1 (64 bit id space)

Password:
Allocating memory for sparse node cache
Node-cache: cache=16000MB, maxblocks=256000*65536, allocation method=1
Using built-in tag processing pipeline
Using projection SRS 3857 (Spherical Mercator)
Setting up table: planet_osm_point
Setting up table: planet_osm_line
Setting up table: planet_osm_polygon
Setting up table: planet_osm_roads

Reading in file: D:\china-latest.osm.pbf
Using PBF parser.
Processing: Node(80470k 5747.9k/s) Way(2689k 54.88k/s) Relation(0 0.00/s)

-C 16000 是为了处理 Node cache size is too small to fit all nodes. Please increase cache size 错误。

发表评论

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注